GIT命令记录总结

前言

这是我从cnblog中找到的最适合我的博文
原作者博客链接Franz_z

作者前言

学习Git,需要推荐一下廖雪峰老师的Git教程:

https://www.liaoxuefeng.com/wiki/0013739516305929606dd18361248578c67b8067c8c017b000

另外还有两篇git的文章挺好的:

https://www.yiibai.com/git/git_handling_conflicts.html
https://blog.csdn.net/xiaokang123456kao/article/details/70921259

git基本操作

git init     ##创建git仓库
git add xxx   ##将本地文件xxx的修改提交到暂存区
git commit -m "mx" ##将暂存区的所有修改修改提交到仓库当中
git reset --hard HEAR^ ##本地目录恢复到上一个版本
git reset --hard xxx ##恢复本地目录至版本xxx
git log ##查看提交日记
git status ##显示工作目录和暂存区的状态
git diff ##比较当前文件和暂存区文件的差异
git diff HEAR HEAR^

使用举例

samuel@franz_z$ mkdir learngit
samuel@franz_z$ cd learngit/
samuel@learngit$ ls -a
. .. hobbys
samuel@learngit$ cat hobbys ##查看hobbys文件内容
#HOBBYS LIST
running
swimming
samuel@learngit$ git init ##创建git仓库
初始化空的 Git 仓库于 /home/samuel/work/franz_z/learngit/.git/

samuel@learngit$ ls -a ##learngit目录下多了.git目录
. .. .git hobbys

samuel@learngit$ git add hobbys ##将hobbys文件提交到暂存区
samuel@learngit$ git commit -m "init learngit project" ##将learngit下修改提交到仓库
[master (根提交) abe2f4f] init learngit project
1 file changed, 3 insertions(+)
create mode 100644 hobbys
samuel@learngit$ git log ##查看版本
commit abe2f4f3dc56942c22a98bf2a07380bae8e263ce
Author: samauel <samauel.zhou@honeywell.com>
Date: Mon Oct 29 14:03:55 2018 +0800
init learngit project

修改hobbys文件后继续提交

samuel@learngit$ echo "playing football" >> hobbys
samuel@learngit$ cat hobbys
#HOBBYS LIST
running
swimming
playing football

samuel@learngit$ git add hobbys
samuel@learngit$ git commit -m "add a new hobby"
[master 4a56f9a] add a new hobby
1 file changed, 1 insertion(+)
samuel@learngit$ git log
commit 4a56f9a14a29542b2d8cf92c317ba198595a5321
Author: samauel <samauel.zhou@honeywell.com>
Date: Mon Oct 29 14:09:54 2018 +0800
add a new hobby
commit abe2f4f3dc56942c22a98bf2a07380bae8e263ce
Author: samauel <samauel.zhou@honeywell.com>
Date: Mon Oct 29 14:03:55 2018 +0800
init learngit project

关于远程仓库

1.查看远程仓库
git remote #查看远程仓库(简单描述)
git remote -v #查看远程仓库(详尽描述)

2.添加远程仓库
git remote add origin git@github.com:Franzzt/xxx.git ##添加名为origin的远程仓库

3.移除远程仓库
git remote rm origin

4.从仓库中获取源码
git clone 仓库地址
git checkout -b dev origin/dev ##checkou远程分支dev,在本地起名为dev,并切换到分支dev
仓库中获取源码分为两种方式:
1.获取所有的项目源码,
git clone git@github.com:Franzzt/learngit.git 下载整个项目的源码

2.获取单个分支的源码
git clone -b origin/dev git@github.com:Franzzt/learngit.git 只下载分支dev的源码

不同的是下载整个项目的源码之后可以在整个项目的所有分支中来回切换,而下载单个分支的动作之后则无法
在切换到其他分支

5.本地更新推送至远程仓库
git push <远程主机名> <本地分支名>:<远程分支名>
git push -u origin master ##推送主分支master到仓库origin
git push -u origin feature-A ##推送分支feature-A到仓库feature-A
git push 推送当前分支到仓库

6.远程仓库更新至本地
git pull <远程主机名> <远程分支名>:<本地分支名> ##取回远程库更新,并与本地分支合并
git pull origin dev

git fetch ##将远程的所有分支跟新到本地
git fetch <远程主机名> <分支名> ##取回远程特定分支的更新
git fetch origin
git merge origin/next

7.分支操作
git branch ##查看本地分支
git branch -r ##查看远程分支
git branch -a ##查看所有分支

git branch feature ##以当前所在分支创建新分支feature
git checkout feature ##切换到分支feature
git checkout -b feature ##创建分支feature并切换到分支feature

git merge feature ##将分支feature内容合并到当前所在分支

git branch -d feature ##删除本地分支feature
git push origin --delete feature ##删除远程仓库分支feature

git push origin dev ##推送分支dev至远程仓库
git branch --set-upstream-to=origin/dev dev # 建立本地分支和远程分支的关联

假如本地有很多分支,哪些分支需要推送到远程仓库中呢?一般是这样的,
master分支是主分支,要时刻与远程同步,一般我们发布最新版本就用master分支。
develop分支是开发分支,团队中所有人都在这个分支上开发,所以也需要与远程同步。
bug分支一般只在本地使用来修复bug,一般不需推送远程仓库中。
feature分支是否需要推送到远程,要看是不是有几个人合作开发新功能,如果你是一个开发,那就留在本地吧。
release分支一般是系统管理,推送或抓取的分支一般与开发人员无关。
other分支按需求分配。

关于多人协作

多人协作
1.github上创建仓库(仓库地址:git@giithub.com:Franzzt/xxx.git)
2.git init
3.git remote add origin git@giithub.com:Franzzt/xxx.git
git remote(查看)
4.git add tset.txt
5.git commit -m "first file"
6.git push -u origin master
7.git checkout -b devlop
8.git add text.txt
9.git commit -m "add text.txt file to branch devlop"
10.git push -u origin devlop
11.git checkout master
12.git merge devlop
13.git fetch origin master
14.git diff
15.git add
16.git commit -m
17.git push origin master
18.git pull origin master
19.git git branch --set-upstream-to=origin/devlop
20.modify file
/
18.git fetch origin master
19.git diff
20.git merge

github/gitee

1.从github上获取项目源码
samuel@franz_z$ git clone git@github.com:Franzzt/learngit.git
正克隆到 'learngit'...
remote: Enumerating objects: 12, done.
remote: Counting objects: 100% (12/12), done.
remote: Compressing objects: 100% (8/8), done.
remote: Total 12 (delta 1), reused 5 (delta 0), pack-reused 0
接收对象中: 100% (12/12), 完成.
处理 delta 中: 100% (1/1), 完成.
检查连接... 完成。
samuel@franz_z$ ls
backup learngit linux-imx uboot-imx

2.创建新文件或修改文件后提交
samuel@learngit$ vim gitlearn.txt
samuel@learngit$ cat gitlearn.txt
Hello world
Juset learngit
samuel@learngit$ git add gitlearn.txt
samuel@learngit$ git commit -m "create a new file learngit"
[master 6c47d1b] create a new file learngit
1 file changed, 2 insertions(+)
create mode 100644 gitlearn.txt

3.推送本地目录更新至远程仓库
samuel@learngit$ git push origin master
对象计数中: 3, 完成.
Delta compression using up to 4 threads.
压缩对象中: 100% (2/2), 完成.
写入对象中: 100% (3/3), 317 bytes | 0 bytes/s, 完成.
Total 3 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0)
To git@github.com:Franzzt/learngit.git
0c584e5..6c47d1b master -> master

4.创建分支修改文件以及合并
samuel@learngit$ git checkout -b devlop
切换到一个新分支 'devlop'
samuel@learngit$ git branch
* devlop
master

samuel@learngit$ git add learngit.txt
samuel@learngit$ git commit -m "add a new file learngit"
[devlop 6149333] add a new file learngit
1 file changed, 2 insertions(+)
create mode 100644 learngit.txt
samuel@learngit$ ls
gitlearn.txt learngit.txt README.md

samuel@learngit$ git checkout master
切换到分支 'master'
您的分支与上游分支 'origin/master' 一致。
samuel@learngit$ ls
gitlearn.txt README.md
samuel@learngit$ git merge devlop
更新 6c47d1b..6149333
Fast-forward
learngit.txt | 2 ++
1 file changed, 2 insertions(+)
create mode 100644 learngit.txt
samuel@learngit$ ls
gitlearn.txt learngit.txt README.md

samuel@learngit$ git checkout devlop
切换到分支 'devlop'
samuel@learngit$ vim learngit.txt
samuel@learngit$
samuel@learngit$ git add learngit.txt
samuel@learngit$ git commit -m "modify file learngit"
[devlop 83b22bc] modify file learngit
1 file changed, 1 insertion(+)
samuel@learngit$ git checkout master
切换到分支 'master'
您的分支领先 'origin/master' 共 1 个提交。
(使用 "git push" 来发布您的本地提交)
samuel@learngit$ vim learngit.txt
samuel@learngit$ git add learngit.txt
samuel@learngit$ git commit -m "modify file learngit"
[master c4cbc1e] modify file learngit
1 file changed, 1 insertion(+)
samuel@learngit$ git branch
devlop
* master
samuel@learngit$ git merge devlop
自动合并 learngit.txt
冲突(内容):合并冲突于 learngit.txt
自动合并失败,修正冲突然后提交修正的结果。
samuel@learngit$ git diff
diff --cc learngit.txt
index 215a818,53dc181..0000000
--- a/learngit.txt
+++ b/learngit.txt
@@@ -1,3 -1,3 +1,7 @@@
#Create new file learngit
#HAHAHA
++<<<<<<< HEAD
+Git is a tool very userful
++=======
+ GIt is very userful
++>>>>>>> devlop
samuel@learngit$ vim learngit.txt
samuel@learngit$
samuel@learngit$ git add learngit.txt
samuel@learngit$ git commit -m "final modify"
[master c003791] final modify

5.本地分支提交冲突

法1:

samuel@learngit$ git push origin master
To git@github.com:Franzzt/learngit.git
! [rejected] master -> master (non-fast-forward)
error: 无法推送一些引用到 'git@github.com:Franzzt/learngit.git'
提示:更新被拒绝,因为您当前分支的最新提交落后于其对应的远程分支。
提示:再次推送前,先与远程变更合并(如 'git pull ...')。详见
提示:'git push --help' 中的 'Note about fast-forwards' 小节。
samuel@learngit$ git pull
自动合并 gitlearn.txt
冲突(内容):合并冲突于 gitlearn.txt
自动合并失败,修正冲突然后提交修正的结果。
samuel@learngit$ vim gitlearn.txt
samuel@learngit$
samuel@learngit$ git diff
diff --cc gitlearn.txt
index b7ed434,73b15b1..0000000
--- a/gitlearn.txt
+++ b/gitlearn.txt
@@@ -1,4 -1,4 +1,8 @@@
Hello world
Juset learngit
I am learning how to use git
++<<<<<<< HEAD
+Help with pronunciation
++=======
+ Can you help me find a few things
++>>>>>>> 7093398c620fccd49322a735756c22963cb41699
samuel@learngit$
samuel@learngit$ vim learngit.txt
samuel@learngit$ vim learngit.txt
samuel@learngit$ vim gitlearn.txt
samuel@learngit$ git add gitlearn.txt
samuel@learngit$ git commit -c "change gitlearn.txt"
fatal: 不能查询提交 change gitlearn.txt
samuel@learngit$ git commit -m "change gitlearn.txt"
[master cc5ba66] change gitlearn.txt
samuel@learngit$ git push origin master
对象计数中: 20, 完成.
Delta compression using up to 4 threads.
压缩对象中: 100% (19/19), 完成.
写入对象中: 100% (20/20), 2.13 KiB | 0 bytes/s, 完成.
Total 20 (delta 4), reused 0 (delta 0)
remote: Resolving deltas: 100% (4/4), done.
To git@github.com:Franzzt/learngit.git
7093398..cc5ba66 master -> master

2.

samuel@franz_z$ cat bcd
samuel@learngit$ git push origin master
To git@github.com:Franzzt/learngit.git
! [rejected] master -> master (fetch first)
error: 无法推送一些引用到 'git@github.com:Franzzt/learngit.git'
提示:更新被拒绝,因为远程仓库包含您本地尚不存在的提交。这通常是因为另外
提示:一个仓库已向该引用进行了推送。再次推送前,您可能需要先整合远程变更
提示:(如 'git pull ...')。
提示:详见 'git push --help' 中的 'Note about fast-forwards' 小节。
samuel@learngit$ git fetch origin master
remote: Enumerating objects: 5, done.
remote: Counting objects: 100% (5/5), done.
remote: Compressing objects: 100% (3/3), done.
remote: Total 3 (delta 1), reused 0 (delta 0), pack-reused 0
展开对象中: 100% (3/3), 完成.
来自 github.com:Franzzt/learngit
* branch master -> FETCH_HEAD
cc5ba66..3c47049 master -> origin/master
samuel@learngit$ git diff
samuel@learngit$ git fetch
samuel@learngit$ git diff
samuel@learngit$ ls
gitlearn.txt learngit.txt README.md
samuel@learngit$ vim gitlearn.txt
samuel@learngit$
samuel@learngit$
samuel@learngit$ git fetch origin master:master
fatal: 拒绝获取到非纯仓库的当前分支 refs/heads/master
samuel@learngit$ git diff
samuel@learngit$
samuel@learngit$ git diff gitlearn.txt
samuel@learngit$
samuel@learngit$
samuel@learngit$ git fetch origin/master
fatal: 'origin/master' does not appear to be a git repository
fatal: Could not read from remote repository.

Please make sure you have the correct access rights
and the repository exists.
samuel@learngit$
samuel@learngit$
samuel@learngit$ git fetch origin master
来自 github.com:Franzzt/learngit
* branch master -> FETCH_HEAD
samuel@learngit$ git diff
samuel@learngit$
samuel@learngit$ vim gitlearn.txt
samuel@learngit$
samuel@learngit$ vim gitlearn.txt
samuel@learngit$
samuel@learngit$ git status
位于分支 master
您的分支和 'origin/master' 出现了偏离,
并且分别有 1 和 1 处不同的提交。
(使用 "git pull" 来合并远程分支)
无文件要提交,干净的工作区
samuel@learngit$ git log
commit ba27af8ce62d12a16d21bc51b2f266e723a0b9a0
Author: samauel <samauel.zhou@honeywell.com>
Date: Mon Oct 29 17:15:30 2018 +0800

modify gitlearn.txt

commit cc5ba66e86644b9d12c6d751f201beabdac54f15
Merge: f52ac0b 7093398
Author: samauel <samauel.zhou@honeywell.com>
Date: Mon Oct 29 17:13:25 2018 +0800

change gitlearn.txt

commit f52ac0be922b23c73eeafa99b81ac6b75a9b6288
Author: samauel <samauel.zhou@honeywell.com>
Date: Mon Oct 29 17:10:19 2018 +0800

modify gitlearngit.txt

commit 7093398c620fccd49322a735756c22963cb41699
Author: Franzzt <40494721+Franzzt@users.noreply.github.com>
Date: Mon Oct 29 17:06:13 2018 +0800

samuel@learngit$ git fetch origin
samuel@learngit$ git merge master
Already up-to-date.
samuel@learngit$ ls
gitlearn.txt learngit.txt README.md
samuel@learngit$ vim gitlearn.txt
samuel@learngit$ git merge origin/master
自动合并 gitlearn.txt
冲突(内容):合并冲突于 gitlearn.txt
自动合并失败,修正冲突然后提交修正的结果。
samuel@learngit$ git diff
diff --cc gitlearn.txt
index 1e0cbe0,4c58b0f..0000000
--- a/gitlearn.txt
+++ b/gitlearn.txt
@@@ -2,4 -2,4 +2,8 @@@ Hello worl
Juset learngit
I am learning how to use git
Do you have any children
++<<<<<<< HEAD
+Where do you parents live
++=======
+ Going to the library
++>>>>>>> origin/master
samuel@learngit$ vim gitlearn.txt
samuel@learngit$
samuel@learngit$ git add gitlearn.txt
samuel@learngit$ git commit -m "modify gitlearn.txt"
[master dfd3be0] modify gitlearn.txt
samuel@learngit$ git push origin master
对象计数中: 6, 完成.
Delta compression using up to 4 threads.
压缩对象中: 100% (6/6), 完成.
写入对象中: 100% (6/6), 730 bytes | 0 bytes/s, 完成.
Total 6 (delta 2), reused 0 (delta 0)
remote: Resolving deltas: 100% (2/2), completed with 1 local object.
To git@github.com:Franzzt/learngit.git
3c47049..dfd3be0 master -> master
samuel@learngit$

本文为转载文章原地址链接:https://www.cnblogs.com/franzz/p/9864188.html

版权声明:除特别注明外,本站所有文章均为王晨曦个人站点原创

转载请注明:出处来自王晨曦个人站点 » GIT命令记录总结

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